Originally Posted by Pasha
رياض الصالحين - (1 / 446)
(1)- عن عِمْرَان بن الحصين رضي الله عنهما ، قَالَ : جَاءَ رَجُلٌ إِلَى النَّبيِّ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - ، فَقَالَ : السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكُمْ ، فَرَدَّ عَلَيْهِ ثُمَّ جَلَسَ ، فَقَالَ النبيُّ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - : (( عَشْرٌ )) ثُمَّ جَاءَ آخَرُ ، فَقَالَ : السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَةُ اللهِ ، فَرَدَّ عَلَيْهِ فَجَلَسَ ، فَقَالَ : (( عِشْرُونَ )) ثُمَّ جَاءَ آخَرُ ، فَقَالَ : السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَةُ الله وَبَركَاتُهُ ، فَرَدَّ عَلَيْهِ فَجَلَسَ ، فَقَالَ : (( ثَلاثُونَ )) رواه أَبُو داود والترمذي ، وقال : (( حديث حسن )) .
851. `Imran bin Husain (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: A man came to the Prophet (PBUH) and said: "As-Salamu `Alaikum (may you be safe from evil). Messenger of Allah (PBUH) responded to his greeting and the man sat down. The Prophet (PBUH) said, "Ten (meaning the man had earned the merit of ten good acts).'' Another one came and said: "As-Salamu `Alaikum wa Rahmatullah (may you be safe from evil, and Mercy of Allah be upon you).'' Messenger of Allah (PBUH) responded to his greeting and the man sat down. Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "Twenty.'' A third one came and said: "As-Salamu `Alaikum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuhu (may you be safe from evil, and the Mercy of Allah and His Blessings be upon you).'' Messenger of Allah (PBUH) responded to his greeting and the man sat down. Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "Thirty.''
[Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi].
Commentary: This Hadith shows that we can earn ten-fold good rewards by greeting a person in the Islamic way. There will be a further ten-fold addition to it if we say, "As-Salamu `Alaikum wa Rahmatullah". may you be safe from evil, and the Mercy of Allah be upon you). And if we say, "As-Salamu `Alaikum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuhu'' may you be safe from evil, and the Mercy of Allah and His Blessings be upon you), thirty-fold good reward comes to us. But Ahadith are silent on increasing more words to Salam. So this much will suffice.
Riyadhus Saliheen - Chapter of Greetings.
The above one hadith is sufficient as a proof AND as a guidance for people about what to use. As for the Ayah in question, hereunder is the tafseer of the ayah for increasing our knowledge.
...For a reformer and preacher of any nation, though a universal call which addresses everyone, ayes or nays, followers or dissenters, is necessary, yet, foremost is the right of those who own his teachings and follow it. Putting them as secondary, or ignoring them for the sake of others is not permissible. For example, in the case of Muslims, the education and reform of unaware Muslims should not be put off in favour of carrying the call to non-Muslims.
4. The rewards and blessings of Allah keep increasing in relation to the measure of gratitude. A person who wishes an increase in Divine rewards, must make gratitude, expressed through word and deed, his way of life, a constant of personality.
About verse 54: (And when to you come those who believe ... ), there are two interpretations given by leading authorities in Tafsir:
1. Most of them have declared it to be related to previous verses and event. In support, they refer to the narration about the event when the chiefs of Quraysh demanded through Abu Talib that his nephew should first remove the poor people around him, with whom they could not sit, then they would come and listen to him, and think about it. Thereupon, it was Sayyidna 'Umar who advised that it did not matter much, for Muslims were sincere friends and if requested they would move out of the sitting so that the chiefs of Quraysh could listen to the Word of Allah and become Muslims.
But, in the previous verses, came the command against this advice that this should never be done. Doing this would be cruel and unjust. The revelation of this verse made Sayyidna 'Umar realize the gravity of his error. He feared he had become a sinner by advising against what was the will of Allah. He came to tender his apology for it.
Thereupon, the present verses were revealed to comfort him. In gist, the Holy Prophet has been asked here to assure them that there will be no retribution for their past mistakes. In fact, not simply that there will be no retribution for the mistake, but that they will also be blessed in many ways by the most merciful Allah. He has also been asked to tell them about His Law that if a Muslim does something evil in ignorance, then gets alerted, repents and corrects his ways for the future, Allah Almighty will forgive him his past sins - and will also not deprive him of His blessings in this world and in the world to come. According to this explanation, these verses were revealed as related to this particular event described in previous verses.
2. Some commentators have taken these verses to be carrying an independent set of rules for guidance. These relate to people who have committed a sin, then felt ashamed of what they did, and repented, and corrected their ways.
A little deliberation will show that there is no contradiction between the two sayings - because it is universally agreed that an injunction of the Holy Qur'an which has been revealed in the background of a particular event, subject to the condition of its words and subject being general, shall not remain restricted to that event, instead of which, it shall have the status of a general injunction. Therefore, even it were to be granted that the said verses did come to be revealed about the event mentioned, still then, this injunction shall have the status of a general rule of conduct which will cover every sinner who gets alarmed even after having committed the sin, then feels ashamed, repents, corrects and turns watchful for the future.
Now let us turn to a fuller explanation of these verses. It is said in the first verse (54): It means: When those people come to him who believe in His Ayat (the word, 'Ayat', at this place, could mean the Ayat or Verses of the Qur'an, and the Ayat or general signs of the perfect power of Allah Jalla Sha'nuhu as well), the Holy Prophet has been instructed to address them by saying: (Peace be upon you). Here, 'Salamun Alaikum' could have two meanings. It could either mean: Convey to them the Salam or greetings of Allah Jalla Sha'nuhu - which is the highest honour they could receive. Given this interpretation, that becomes the best antidote for the heart-break of poor Muslims, about whom the chiefs of the Quraysh had said that they should be removed from the gathering before they come. Or it could also mean: You give them the good news of their being safe and protected - that is, if they have fallen short or even made a mistake in what they have done, that will stand forgiven, and that they shall stay protected against all sorts of calamities.
In the next sentence of the verse: , the promise of additional favour and reward has been made by saying: You tell these Muslims that Allah has taken it upon Himself that mercy shall be shown to them. Therefore, let them not be frightened or nervous. First of all, by using the word, Rabb, the assertion in the verse has been provided with a proof - that Allah is your Nurturer, Nourisher, Sustainer. It is obvious no nurturer would let what is being nurtured go to waste. Then, the mercy which was promised by that Rabb has been further clarified through a weighty, yet endearing, statement that 'their Rabb has prescribed this mercy on Himself. It is obvious when even an average good person would not go back on his promise, how could this be ever imagined when referred to the Lord of the Worlds Himself, specially so when this promise has been preserved as a written document.
Based on a narration of Sayyidna Abu Hurairah , it has been reported in the Sahih of Al-Bukhari and Muslim, and in the Musnad of Ahmad, that the Holy Prophet said: When Allah Ta'ala created the whole creation and determined the destiny of everyone, then, in a Book with Him on the 'Arsh, He wrote: (My Mercy is dominant over My Wrath).
And Sayyidna Salman says: We have seen written in the Torah, when Allah created the heavens and the earth and the entire creation in them, He divided His mercy in a hundred parts. One part from this He distributed all over the creation - and wherever any effect of this mercy is found among human beings, animals and other elements of creation, that owes itself to this same part. The mutual love and concern found among parents and children, brothers and sisters, husbands and wives, among relatives, neighbours and friends, are all the outcome of this share from the mercy of Allah. The rest of the ninety nine parts of mercy have been kept by Allah Ta'ala for Himself. There are other narrations in which this has been described as a Hadith from the Holy Prophet . This goes to show the quality and extent of Allah's mercy for His creation.
It goes without saying that no 'Ibadah (worship) or 'Ita'ah (obedience) can be good enough so as to be considered as presentable before Allah Jalla Sha'nuhu - neither by an angel nor by a human being. We should not see our 'Ibadah and Ita'ah and good deeds in isolation. If we were to look at them as related to the highest of the high, we would humbly realize that what we have been able to do was not any better than what is simply bad. Still one has to be thankful for being able to do what was possible specially when no human being is free of real evils and sins - unless protected by Allah. Under this situation, justice would have demanded that no one remains safe from a general punishment. But, what is actually happening is that every human being is being showered with the blessings of Allah all the time. This, then, is the direct outcome of that mercy which the great Lord-Nourisher of the universe has put it down in writing as His responsibility."
[Ma'ariful Qur'an - 6:54]