1. One’s inability to understand something is no argument for its being false.
2. If a thing is rationally possible, and its existence is attested by sound report, then it is necessary to accept its existence. On the other hand, if its non-existence is attested by sound report, then it is equally necessary to accept its non-existence.
3. What is rationally impossible is something totally different from what is merely possible. The impossible is opposed to reason itself, while the possible is opposed merely to habit. The predicates of reason and those of habit are quite distinct, and it is erroneous to identify them with each other. What is impossible can never exist, but what is merely possible may exist. It is the impossible alone which can be described as irrational, while the possible is only something which reason cannot understand by itself. It is a great error to confuse one with the other.
4. If a thing exists, it is not necessary that it must also be sensible and visible.
5. It is not possible to prove a purely reported fact by a purely rational argument. So it is not also permissible to demand a rational argument for it.
6. There is some difference between a precedent and an argument. It may be justifiable to demand an argument form the man who makes an assertion, but it is not valid to demand a precedent from him.
7. There are two types of arguments: conclusive and approximate. A conclusive argument is a logical argument that cannot be contradicted. An approximate argument is one of the possible explanations that may be contradicted. Reason and religious reports have four relationships as far as contradiction is concerned.
1. Conclusive contradicting arguments are presented by both reason and report. This is impossible, for two truths cannot contradict each other.
2. Conclusive argument is found with report and an approximate argument is found with reason. In this case, the report would be accepted and reason would be rejected.
3. Both contradicting arguments, from reason and report, are approximate. In this case, report would be accepted and reason would be rejected.
4. Reason gives a conclusive argument and an approximate argument is conveyed by report, either because of its connotation or its authenticity. In this case, the report is to be interpreted in a non-literal way that does not contradict reason.
Thus, it is only the last of the above four cases, in which reason (dirayah) is given superiority over a religious report (riwayah).