last weeks brief notes
Al ‘Ishmāwiyyah: a manual of Fiqh
Lecturer: Mawlānā Hasan Anyabwile al Kārībī
Bismillahir Rahmānir Rahīm, Allahumma ṣalli ‘alā sayyidinā Muḥammad wa ‘alā ālihi wa ṣaḥbihi wa sallim taslīman.
The author of this manual is the Shaykh, the Zāhid ‘Abdulbārī b. Aḥmad b. ‘Abdulghāni b. ‘Atīq b. Al Shaykh Hasan al ‘Ishmāwī al Miṣrī al Mālikī. He was born in the last part of the 9th century and the beginning of the 10th century that is between 1494-1591 C.E. in the agricultural region of Minufiyyah in the village of al ‘Ishmāwiyyah also called ‘Ashmāwiyyah north-west of Cairo. The text or manual is called ‘Ishmāwiyyah or; Ashmāwiyyah after the nisbah of the author who came from that village and it is famously named as that.
The Shaykh was a graduate of al Azhār, Cairo Egypt, and one of his shaykhs was the erudite scholar, Imām Shamsuddīn as Sakhāwī. This text is famous all over Africa and other parts of the worldwide Muslim community, and is used by young students as an introduction to practical fiqh and information on what was necessary for the Muslim who is responsible for certain actions to his Lord to know, therefore it is necessary for him/her to acquire this knowledge.
In our lecture we will be drawing on commentaries on the text such as at Tuḥfatul Raḍīyah fī Fiqh as Sādatil Mālikīyah by Dr. Musṭafā Dībul Bughā Professor of Fiqh and Usūl ad Dīn and Qawā’id in the college of Sharī’ah, University of Damascus and the famous commentary by Shaykh Aḥmad b. Turkī al Mālikī known as, Khulāsah al Jawāhir az Zakīyah fī Fiqh al Mālikīyah (died 992 A.H.).
“Man yuridil lahu bihi khayran yufaq qihhu fīd dīn”
(Whosoever Allah desires good for; He gives him understanding in the din)
Attaining an understanding of this diyn is a Baraka from Allah because it saves the person from extremism and undue hardship. This brings us to what these lessons will be based on and what is necessary for us to understand before we proceed to the text. Following are some necessary things I feel the student should know because we live in an age that is amazing. An age which our Messenger (S) warned us about and indicated signs of its appearance, one of its signs is the appearance of deluded youths, who will speak about Islam as he put it’ without their adult tooth’ appearing. He meant their immaturity, lack of knowledge and all the problems associated with youth. This is connected to the hadith where he said regarding the Sunnah that one should ‘hold on to it with your molar’s, indicating adulthood and knowledge. So it is a duty for young especially when he or she have attained young adulthood to learn about their responsibilities to their Lord and fellow human beings, because they are mukallaf and this manual of fiqh is addressed to this audience so that they would not be blameworthy in this world and the next. Success is with Allah.
Q. What is fiqh?
A. Fiqh has two meanings, linguistically and technically. As for the linguistical meaning; it means ‘understanding’. Technically it means; the knowledge of the judgements of the Shariah, that is to be applied, and obtained from the detailed proofs.
Q. What is the subject matter of fiqh?
A. It is the actions of the mukallaf (the one that is responsible), with respect to what concerns it from the obligations, recommended, disliked, beneficial and prohibited etc.
Q. What is the fruit or benefit of fiqh?
A. Its benefit is correct performance of worship, worldly transaction and
success and victory with great felicity and prosperity in this world and the hereafter.
Q. What is the judgement of the shariah?
A. They are ten; five are responsibilities and five are conventional . As for the responsibilities they are wujūb, nadab, hurmah, kirāhah and ibāha’.
Wujūb- something required as an obligation for which one is rewarded for doing it and one is punished for not doing it.
Hurmah- something that one is required to leave alone as an obligation for which one will be rewarded for not doing it and punished for doing it.
Kirāhah- something that is required for you to leave alone not as an obligation for which one will be rewarded for not doing it and punished for doing it.
Ibāhah- something that is a matter of choice between leaving it and doing it, for which one is not rewarded for doing it nor punished for not doing it. Nadab is similar to this.
Q. What is the judgement on the conventional?
A. It is the speech of Allah, to which something is attached or it is connected to something as its cause, or as a condition for it, or as a restriction, or to indicate something that it is correct or false.
The second Khalif of Islam, Umar said; “we used to acquire knowledge before action” This is important advice for all because this is one of the social and spiritual disease of our age where many act without knowledge resulting in immense confusion and harm, may Allah protect us from this. So here ends the first class may Allah accept it from you and me, amen!