Are they the same prayer? What is the view of scholars regarding it?
Are they the same prayer? What is the view of scholars regarding it?
No, Tahajjud you can pray all year and Taraweeh is specific to Rmadhan. (according to my limited understanding)
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Tarawih is a separate prayer specific to the month of Ramadan as established by various narrations of the Prophet and the Sahabah . Tahajjud is not specific to Ramadan rather it is a desired and optional prayer which remains throughout the year, even during Ramadan!
The Salafis and Rafidi Shi'as deny the tarawih altogether. The former says the tarawih is the same tahajjud which is just prayed after isha in Ramadan which is in essence the same as denying the additional prayer of tarawih. The latter denies it outright obviously.
First, it should be said that the Hadith reported from Sayyidah Aisha (RA) about 11 Rak'ahs is not at all to do with Taraweeh, according to the majority of scholars, but in fact concerns the number of Rak'ahs of Tahajjud prayer! The Hadith is as follows:-
Narrated abu salama bin abdur rahman (RA):
I asked Aisha (RA) about the prayer of Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) during the month of Ramadan. She said, “ALLAH’s Messenger (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) never exceeded 11 Rakats in Ramadan nor in the other months; he used to offer 4 rakats – do not ask me about their beauty and lentgh, then 4 Rakats, do not ask me about their beauty and length, and then 3 Rakat.” Aisha further said , “I said, ‘O Allah’s messenger! Do you sleep before offering Witr salat?’ he replied, ‘O Aisha! My eyes sleep but my heart remains awake!’
(Bukhari, book of Tahajjud prayer, chapter: the Salat (prayer) of the prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) at night in Ramadan and in other months. 2:248)
The commentator of al-Sahih al-Bukhari and the erudite traditionist, Shaykh Shamsud-Din al-Kermani (d. 786 AH; RH) said: 'In the Hadith (above), the Tahajjud prayer is meant. Abu Salama's question and Hadrat Aisha's answer concerned the Tahajjud.' He adds further: 'If the Tahajjud prayer is not meant, then this tradition will be at variance with the tradition that states that the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) led twenty Rak'ahs each for two nights, and in the case of such clash the tradition of twenty Rakah's which is affirmative (Muthbit) shall have precedence because according to the principles of Hadith, the affirmative takes precedence over the negative (Naafi)" (vide: Al-Kawakib ud-Durari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, vol. 9, pg 155-156).
We say, does this not mean that people who perform 8 Rak'ahs of Taraweeh, should pray 20 Rak'ahs instead? Since according to the principles of Hadith, "The affirmative takes precedence over the negative in certain cases."
A great fact that should also be noted is that the Imam's of Hadith have placed the Hadith from Sayyidah Aisha (RA) under the section of Tahajjud prayers, which indicates their belief that the Hadith applies to Tahajjud only. The Imam al-Muhaddithin al-Bukhari has placed the Hadith from Sayyidah Aisha under at least two sections of his Sahih, first under the section of '21: The Tahajjud Prayer at Night' (see Sahih al-Bukhari, vol. 2, chapter 15, no. 248, English ed'n) and then under the section of '32: The Book of Taraweeh Prayers' (see Sahih al-Bukhari, 3/230, pg. 128 English ed'n). This means that al-Imam Bukhari believed that the prayer mentioned by Aisha was that of Tahajjud only, and since the Tahajjud prayer is performed also in Ramadan, then Imam Bukhari also quoted the same Hadith under 'The book of Taraweeh prayers', but Allah knows best.
Imam Muslim has also placed the Hadith from Aisha under the Tahajjud prayer section (see Sahih Muslim 1/1607, pg. 356, English ed'n). Also Imam Malik has placed Sayyidah Aisha's Hadith under the Book of Tahajjud (see Al-Muwatta, Book 7, section 7.2, no. 9, pg. 5, English ed'n). Al-Imam Abi Dawud has also placed the same Hadith under the chapter 'On the number of Rak'ahs of the prayer at night (Tahajjud)' (see Abi Dawud 1/1336, pg. 351, English version). Even Imam's Tirmidhi and Nisai (Allah's mercy be upon them) placed Aisha's Hadith under the Tahajjud section (see Tirmidhi, vol. 1, pg. 58 and Nisai, vol. 1, pg. 154).
Ibne Hajar states that in Bukhari the chapter of Tahajjud, Witr, and Nawafil prayers are mentioned separately, so this indicates that Imam Bukhari did not place Tahajjud, Witr and optional prayer into one chapter, but into different, separate chapters.
(FATHUL BARI VOL.2 PG.478)
This proves that Tahajjud and Tarawih prayers are separate prayers, if however, the Tahajjud and Tarawih prayer was the same-as some people (Salafis) say, why didn’t Imam Bukhari mention Tarawih and Tahajjud prayer into one chapter or book?
Removal of a doubt
If someone makes a claim that there is no distinction between Tahajjud and Taraweeh. For 11 months it is called Tahajjud and in Ramadhaan it is called Taraweeh. In response to this we would question: What is the proof for this claim? And when there are numerous distinctions existing, then how is it possible to regard both as one?
Differences between Tahajjud and Taraweeh
1. Tahajjud was ordained by means of express quranic verse: “Stand up at night except a little.” Taraweeh being a Sunnah was established through the hadith of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: “I have made its standing Sunnat upon for you.”
2. Everyone agrees that the number of Rakaats of Tahajjud have been transmitted by Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam), the maximum being 13 including Witr and the minimum being 7 including Witr. However no specific number has been transmitted from Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) regarding Taraweeh as clearly stated by Allamah ibne Taymiah. Therefore the Aimma-e-Mujtahideen differ in the number. Some say 20 and some say 36, even more.
3. Tahajjud was ordained in Makkah whilst Taraweeh was prescribed in Madina.
4. It is mentioned in the realiable books of the Hambali Mazhab, Muqna: “Taraweeh is 20 Rakaats which a person performs in Ramadhaan in Jamaat. He will read Witr after it in Jamaat. However if he reads Tahajjud then he will make Witr after it.”
5. Tahajjud is generally performed after sleeping while Taraweeh is performed after Esha.
From the above we learn that Taraweeh and Tahajjud are separate Salaahs.
The Hadith Of Aisha (RA) Dosen't proove The Tarawih Prayer:
This Hadith apparently indicates that Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) performed eight Rakaats and three Rakaats Witr, In other Ahadith it is stated that Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) prayed more than 8 and less than 8 Rakats, i.e.
The same narrator Aisha (RA) clearly states that prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) prayed 13 Rakats. (Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 21, Number 241)
And Only Allah Ta'ala Knows Best.