To get rid of NAJAASAT HUKMIYYA by making use of clean earth or clay in a special way is called TAYAMMUM.
TAYAMMUM IS PERMITTED IN THE FOLLOWING CASES:-
When water is not available within a radius of approximately 1.7km.
When there is fear of an enemy or a dangerous animal or a snake is near the water.
When the water is so little that, if the water is used up for Wudhu or Ghusl then there is fear of thirst.
When there is no rope or bucket to draw water from a well or one cannot reach water that is nearby (due to some reason) and no other person is available to fetch the water.
When it is known by ones own experience or a capable doctor says that the use of water would definitely be injurious to ones health.
When one does not have sufficient amount of money to pay for water which is being sold.
If water is sold at a very ridiculous price.
One is at a place where there is no water. He himself guesses or someone tells him that water is available within approximately one mile. It will now be necessary to fetch water and perform Wudhu.
IT WILL NOT BE NECESSARY TO FETCH WATER IF:-
There is no trace of water.
No one is present to give information regarding water,
It is believed that water will be found after a distance of approximately one mile or more.
If so little water is available that a person can only carry out the four FARAA'ID of WUDHU, then TAYAMMUM is not permissible.
If something NAJIS had fallen on the ground or sand etc. it is not permissible to use that earth for TAYAMMUM even if it dries up. But Salaah on that place is permissible after it has become dry.
lf there is very little water and one is in need of GHUSL or WUDHU and his clothes and body is also NAJIS, then first, one should wash off the NAJAASAT from ones body and clothes and then do TAYAMMUM.
FARAAID OF TAYAMMUM
There are three FARAA'ID (Compulsory Acts) of TAYAMMUM:
Striking both hands on earth and rubbing them on the face.
Striking both hands on earth and rubbing both forearms including the elbows.
MASNOON WAY OF TAYAMMUM
Recite Bismillah then make Niyyah
Make NIYYAT or intention in the following way:
"O Allah, I am making TAYAMMUM for WUDHU or GHUSL, to perform my Salaah or recite the QURAAN SHARIF, etc."
Strike both hands on clean earth or dust. Then dust the hands and blow off the excess dust or earth on the hands. Rub both the hands over the complete face without leaving a hair's breadth of space.
Strike both hands again on the ground.
Then dust the hands and blow off the excess dust.
Rub the left hand over the complete right hand including the elbow.
Rub the right hand over the complete left-hand including the elbow.
Then do KHILAAL of fingers.
If one is wearing a ring it is necessary to remove it or at least revolve it.
It is SUNNAH to do KHILAL of the beard also.
ITEMS ON WHICH TAYAMMUM IS PERMITTED
Baked earthen pots (Unglazed).
Walls of mud, stone or brick.
All items which have thick dust on them.
ITEMS ON WHICH TAYAMMUM IS NOT PERMITTED
All items, which burn to ash, rot or melt.
ITEMS ON WHICH TAYAMMUM IS PERMITTED
Things on which TAYAMMUM is allowed need not be covered with dust.
If there is a stone, brick or clay pot, it can be used for TAYAMMUM even after it was washed clean and has no dust on it.
TAYAMMUM is permissible if one is on the point of missing the JANAZAH SALAAH or EIDAIN SALAAH as there is no qadha for these two salaah.
It will not be necessary to repeat the Salaah already performed should water be found after the Salaah.
The duration of TAYAMMUM, is as long as water is not available or the helplessness continues. This can last for years.
BREAKERS OF TAYAMMUM
Things which break wudhu also break tayammum.
Tayammum for ghusl breaks only after hadath akbar.
Tayammum done when water is not found breaks when water is found.
Tayammum done due to a disease breaks when one is cured from that disease.
One can perform any number of salaah by one tayammum as long as it does not break.
Tayammum done for fardh salaah will be valid for nafl, for reading the holy quraan, janaza salaah, sajda-e-tilaawat and for all other kinds of salaah.