Assalaamu Alaikum Wa Rahmatullah,
Would appreciate some help from the venerable Shafi'i members on this forum.
1) The Imam is praying Dhuhr/Asr - You join the jamaa'ah in the second rak'ah, having missed the first rak'ah.
- When the Imam rises from his first sitting/tasahhud, do you need to do raf'ul yadain and say takbeer?
- The Imam is in his third rak'ah. Do you add a surah after the recitation of your own fatihah? (Remember: It's dhuhr/asr)
- When the Imam rises from the last sajdah in his third rak'ah, do you need to do raf'ul yadain and say an extra takbeer? (It's the end of your second rak'ah)
- When do you stand up to make up the missed rak'ah? Is it after the first salaam or the second salaam is completed?
2) You have a scalp disease (seborrheic dermatitis) and are going to hajj. Is there anything in the madhab to say that you can forgo the halq and pay a penalty to make up? What will be the penalty?